31 October 2015

We Are Church




And we must remain.

True to her. True to Christ.

God bless Ross Douthat for saying so:

Now it may be that today’s heretics are prophets, the church will indeed be revolutionized, and my objections will be ground under with the rest of conservative Catholicism. But if that happens, it will take hard grinding, not just soft words and academic rank-pulling. It will require a bitter civil war.


With God's grace, let us be in it to win it.



Church Arsonist Caught: Sharpton Visit Averted

Well, it was fun blaming white supremacists while it lasted, but police finally arrested a suspect in the St. Louis serial church arson case.

Rest easy, because media reports about this being a possible hate crime are false. The suspect is black, so no hate crime.

You see, he only targeted Christians.

Since the suspect doesn't fit the template, look for this story to disappear now.

BTW, the whole idea of hate crimes is repugnant and bankrupt. All of the acts that make up hate crimes are already crimes. This merely allows our betters to engage in political and selective prosecution.



29 October 2015

To Poets, Then

My sincere gratitude goes out to reader Alison for pointing out this post over at The Sensible Bond. It is beautiful.

The blogger quotes from Georges Bernanos:

Phariseeism is a particular kind of crime that cruelly tests the patience of the saints, while merely making poor Christians like me either bitter or disgusted.

But I do not trust my indignation or my disgust: indignation never saved anybody and it has probably led to the loss of many souls. All those simoniacal orgies in 16th century Rome would have been of little use to the devil if they had not brought about this unique achievement of casting Luther into despair, and with him two thirds of the sorrowing Christian world. Luther and his followers despaired of the Church, and whoever despairs of the Church risks - by a curious paradox - despairing sooner or later of Man. Protestantism from this perspective seems to me like a compromise with despair. [...]

Churchmen would have willingly put up with Luther's joining his voice to that of others who were more illustrious and holier and who were constantly denouncing such disorders. But Martin Luther's tragedy was to try to reform them. Let's try to grasp the nuance here. [...]

It is a fact of experience that nothing can be reformed in the Church by ordinary means. Whoever attempts to reform the Church by such means, the same means by which one would reform a temporal institution, not only fails in his entreprise, but ends up infallibly outside the Church. I say that, by some kind of tragic fate, he finds himself outside the Church before anyone has taken the trouble to exclude him. He renounces its spirit, its dogmas, he becomes its enemy without hardly realising, and if he attempts to turn back, each step takes him further away [...]

One can only reform the Church by suffering for her; one can only reform the visible Church by suffering for the invisible Church. One cannot reform the Church's vices except by pouring out the example of the most heroic virtue. It's possible that St Francis of Assisi was no less disgusted than Martin Luther by the debauchery and simony of prelates. It is even certain that they made him suffer more cruelly than Luther because he was a very different man from the German monk. But he did not defy iniquity or try to confront it; he threw himself into poverty, plunged himself into it as much as he could, as if it were the fountain of healing and purity. Instead of trying to rip from the hands of the Church her ill gotten goods, he filled her with invisible treasures, and under the guidance of this beggar, the heaps of gold and riches began to flower like a hedgerow in April. Can I say - in the hope of being understood better by some readers - that the Church does not need critics but poets? When there is a crisis in poetry, what is important is not to denounce the bad poets or even to hang them, but to write beautiful verse, to reopen the sacred fountains of inspiration.




File It under "Things That Make You Go Hmmm."

A very interesting read.  Very interesting. Very.

In Praise of Wakes

I had resolved not to link to First Things, due to its decision to trash and dump Maureen Mullarkey.  However, I will make an exception, as a former reader of this blog sent me a link to a nice article he wrote over at FT about the grace and Catholicity involved in the wake and burial drama.  It seems to me to especially timely, in our day of indifferentism, cremation, and slovenly dress.

A very good read.  Get it here:  In Praise of Wakes, by Mark S. Milburn

St. Louis Magazine Covers the Cathedral of the South Side

A reader was kind enough to send me this article from St. Louis Magazine.  It covers the restoration efforts at one of the city's most beautiful and iconic churches.  Check it out.  An excerpt:

The author had the pleasure of recently touring the grand spire with Robert Shea, who offers free public tours to view the magnificent Emil Frei stained glass windows at noon every second Sunday of the month, and Chris Petersen, who is in charge of the physical plant of the church. Ascending up the cast iron stairs to the bell tower, one passes by thousands of carefully laid bricks, each placed one on top of each other over a hundred years ago. Reaching the gallery of the tower where the bells are mounted is relatively easy (unless one is terrified of heights like this author), and the visitor is treated to spectacular views of the city approximately 150 above street level.


Petersen has the daunting task of maintaining this huge masonry structure on a limited budget, and he’s come to know just about every inch of the tower. He even proceeded to climb up the steel structure that holds the four bronze bells in place, nimbly stepping from bell to bell to read the Latin inscriptions on each. Petersen also must climb up to the upper gallery of the tower for maintenance, which is reached by a vertical ladder. One of the upper wood platforms is actually suspended by steel tie rods to the roof of the tower. This author wisely believed that scaling this behemoth structure any further would be a bad idea. But seeing how the tower is assembled, with a combination of brick and steel, was a truly moving experience.

26 October 2015

Stamping Out Cultural Marxism

I enjoyed this piece at Zero Hedge by Tyler Durden. I hope it spurs some discussion in the combox.  It has application in the ecclesiastical sphere, too, but here is the relevant excerpt of the post on how to stamp out cultural Marxism in one generation.  Note the section on Homeschooling, too:

And so, here are my solutions, which must be enacted by individuals in their daily lives regardless of the potential backlash. Do you have leftist leaning friends or family members? It doesn’t matter. Are you employed in a workplace crawling with social justice ideologues? Stop seeing them as part of the equation because they do not matter. Worried about losing a relationship if you make a stand? Say good riddance. This is what must be done by free thinkers if they are to counter and reverse the collectivist nightmare of cultural Marxism.


Feel no shame: Social justice relies on shaming tactics, usually by slandering an opponent with a label that does not really apply to him, in order to control his arguments and behavior. If you don’t care about being called a bigot, a racist, a sexist, a misogynist, a homophobe, etc., then there is not really much that they can do to you.

Do not self-censor: This does not mean you should go out of your way to be antagonistic or act like an ass, but the thought police have power only if you give power to them. Say what you want to say when you want to say it, and do it with a smile. Let the PC police froth and scream until they have an aneurysm. Cultural Marxists are generally weaklings. They avoid physical confrontation like they avoid logic, so why fear them?

Realize there is no such thing as white privilege or male privilege: In reality, there is only institutionalized “privilege” for victim-status groups. There is no privilege for whites, males, white males or straight white males. When confronted with such claims, demand to see proof of such privilege. Invariably, you will get a long list of first world problems and complaints backed by nothing but easily debunked talking points and misrepresented statistics. People should not feel guilty for being born the way they are, and this includes us “white male devils.”

Demand facts to back claims: Cultural Marxists tend to argue on the basis of opinion rather than fact. Present facts to counter their claims, and demand facts and evidence in return. Opinions are irrelevant if the person is not willing to present supporting facts when asked.

Do not play the game of "unconscious bias": If social justice cultists can't counter your position with facts or logic, they will invariably turn to the old standby that you are limited in your insight because you have not lived in the shoes of a - (insert victim group here).  I agree.  In fact, I would point out that this reality of limited perception also applies to THEM as well.  They have not lived in my shoes, therefore they are in no position to claim I enjoy "privilege" while they do not.  This is why facts and evidence are so important, and why anecdotal evidence and personal feelings are irrelevant where cultural Marxism is concerned.

Let cultural Marxists know their fears and feelings do not matter: No one is entitled to have their feelings addressed by others. And, a person’s fears are ultimately unimportant. Whether the issue is the nonexistent “rape culture” or the contempt cultural Marxists feel over private gun ownership, their irrational fears are not our concern. Why should any individual relinquish his liberties in the name of placating frightened nobodies?

Demand that society respect your inherent individual rights: Collectivism’s ultimate propaganda message is that there is no such thing as inherent rights or liberties and that all rights are arbitrary and subject to the whims of the group or the state. This is false. I have written extensively in the past on inherent rights, inborn psychological contents and natural law, referencing diverse luminaries, scientists and thinkers, including Thomas Aquinas, Carl Gustave Jung, Steven Pinker, etc., and I welcome readers to study my many articles on individualism.  Freedom is an inborn conception with universally understood aspects. Period. No group or collective is more important than individual liberty. No artificial society has preeminence over the individuals within that society. As long as a person is not directly impeding the life, liberty, prosperity and privacy of another person, he should be left alone.

Maintain your rights; they do not hurt other people: PC cultists will invariably argue that every person, whether he knows it or not, is indirectly harming others with his attitude, his beliefs, his refusal to associate, even his very breathing.  "We live in a society", they say, "and everything we do affects everyone else...".  Don’t take such accusations seriously; these people do not understand how freedom works.

Say, for instance, hypothetically, that I refuse to bake a gay wedding cake for a couple and I am accused of violating their rights in the name of preserving my own. I would immediately point out that no one is entitled to a gay wedding cake, baked by me or anyone else and I have every right to choose my associations based on whatever criteria I see fit. Now, a corrupt government entity may claim I do not have that right. But the fact is I do, and no one — not even government — can force me to bake a cake if I don’t want to. Also, I would point out that the gay couple in question has every right in a free society to bake their OWN damn cake or open their own cake shop to compete with mine. This is how freedom works. It is not based on collective entitlement; it is based on personal responsibility.

Refuse to deny the scientific fact of biological gender: Gender is first and foremost a genetic imperative. Society does not determine gender roles; nature does. A man who chops up his body and takes hormone pills to look like a woman is not and will never be a woman. A woman who tapes down her breasts and gets a short haircut will never be a man. There is no such thing as “transgendered” people. No amount of social justice or wishful thinking will ever allow them to reverse their genetic proclivities. Their psychological and sexual leanings do not change their inborn biological reality.

By extension, we should refuse to play along with this nonsense. I will never refer to a man in a wig and dress as a “woman.” I will never refer to a woman with identity issues as “transgendered.” They are what nature made them, and we should not police our pronouns just to falsely reassure them that they can deny nature.

Deny the illusion of Utopian equality: There is no such thing as pure equality.  Society is not a homogeneous entity, it is an abstraction built around a group of unique individuals.  Individuals can be naturally gifted, or naturally challenged.  But there will always be some people who are more apt towards success than others.

I have no problem whatsoever with the idea of equality of opportunity, which is exactly what we have in this country (except in the world of elitist finance which is purely driven by nepotism).  I do have a problem with the lie of universal equality through engineered means.

Standards of success should not be lowered in order to accommodate the least skilled people to facilitate artificial parity.  For example, I constantly hear the argument that more people with victim group status should be given greater representation in positions of influence and regard within our culture, from science and engineering, to media, to business CEO's, to politics, etc.  The key word here is "given", rather than "earned".  There is nothing wrong with one group of people excelling in a field more than another group, and there is nothing wrong with inequality when it comes to individual achievement.  We must begin refusing to reward people for mediocrity and punishing success simply because the winners are not part of a designated victim group.

If you are a man, embrace your role: I am a man and cannot claim to know what specific solutions women should take to counter cultural Marxism. I would love to read an article written on the subject by a woman in the Liberty Movement.  I will say that men in particular have a considerable task ahead in terms of their personal endeavors if they hope to repair the destruction of social justice.

For thousands of years, men have been the primary industrial force behind human progress. Today, they are relegated to cubicles and customer service, to video games and Web fantasies, to drug addictions and a lack of responsibility. If we have any chance of undoing the damage of cultural Marxism, modern men must take on their original roles as producers, inventors, entrepreneurs, protectors, builders and warriors once again. They should do this for their own benefit, and not for the validation of others.

You don’t have to prove to anyone you do "manly things", just go out and do them. Most importantly, become dangerous. Men are meant to be dangerous beings. That does not mean we are meant to be indiscriminately violent (just as women aren’t meant to be indiscriminately violent), but we are supposed to be threatening to those who would threaten us. Modern society has NOT removed the need for masculinity and I believe people will begin realizing this the more our culture sinks into economic despair. Train in martial arts, learn tactical firearms handling, go hunting and don’t take lip from people. In my opinion, every man should know how to kill things, even if he never plans on using those abilities.

Home-school your children: It’s simple, if you don’t want your kids propagandized, if you truly want them to be free from collectivist conditioning, then you will make the sacrifice and extract them from public schooling. With the introduction of Common Core into U.S. schools in particular, there is no other recourse but home schooling to prevent the brainwashing of cultural Marxism. If you do not do this, you are relying on the hope that your children will escape with their critical thinking abilities intact. Some do, and some don’t. Others turn into mindless social justice zombies. You can give them an advantage by removing them from a poisonous environment, and that is what matters.

Synod Reflection: Beatings Will Continue until Morale Improves

Well, the Synod against the Family is past, and despite the sincere efforts, no doubt, of many inside and outside the hierarchy (and these efforts must be acknowledged) the Synod has done its job.

The Synod's Final Relatio provides the mechanism--and the call-- to undermine the family and to give Church sanction to disobedience of the very command of Our Lord Jesus Christ. The delete line I have always put through "against" when discussing the Synod is removed intentionally, above.

That this mechanism encouraging the abandonment of Truth is contained "merely" through a document that has loopholes any blind lawyer could drive a truck through does not alter the reality. In fact, my own take (with a sincere disclaimer that I rely on others' English language translations) is that you need loopholes to read the "problematic" paragraphs to an orthodox conclusion (See discussion of paragraphs 69-71, 75, and 84-86 here).

All in the now besmirched name of mercy. Mercy. What, in the name of Mercy, has mercy ever done to deserve such treatment?

Mercy? Is it merciful to encourage and confirm the breakup of sacramental marriages? Is it merciful to quash whatever slight hopes are harbored in the hearts of children whose parents are separated, civilly divorced, fighting, or just irresponsible that they might yet repair the damage and live their vocation? Is it merciful to encourage sacrilegious Comminion and to accompany dulled consciences to their euthanization?

Is it too much to expect the Church that Christ founded would at the very least refrain from burying the corpse of hope?

Mercy.

Come, all ye who violate the sixth and ninth commandments;

Come, all ye in mortal sin;

Come, all ye who pervert nature and nature's law;

And we, the New Church of Mercy, say unto thee, keep going, pile on sin after sin, add sacrilege to the pile, and enjoy your ride to wherever our indifference in the name of Mercy takes you.

Our Lord condemned the Pharisees for their hardness of heart. The Holy Father has also many times cited this condemnation. But I ask you, is not this document, and the plan behind it, the triumph of the Pharisees? It seems the strategy of Pharisees to call the remaining followers of Christ "Pharisees" in order to escape their own obvious label as Pharisees has been a rousing success.

Brethren, be sober and alert, indeed (1 Peter 5)

One more item for your enjoyment: I saw this early on, and though it is posted at The Remnant and other sites, I direct your attention to this classic "rant" (I say "rant in the common usage only, for it is spot on and free from "raving") by Dr. John Rao. The video starts with some analysis, and then Rao names names, so to speak. If you have an ounce of Catholic sensibility left, you have to see it.

Dear Readers, this is not a post of bitterness or fear, or even of anger. The situation in the Church has entered a new and bizarre phase. It's just my take, it doesn't have to be yours. I prefer to deal with what I think is real than to pretend that the situation isn't grave. The Catholic Church is the One True Church. It will not fail. That doesn't mean foes won't try to destroy her. Quite the opposite.

Keep the faith. Oremus pro invicem.



25 October 2015

Feast of Christ the King




Wishing readers a blessed Feast day of the King of Kings:

Consecration of the Human Race to the Sacred Heart of Jesus

Most sweet Jesus, Redeemer of the human race, look down upon us humbly prostrate before Your altar. We are Yours, and Yours we wish to be; but, to be more surely united with You, behold each one of us freely consecrates himself today to Your Most Sacred Heart. Many indeed have never known You; many too, despising Your precepts, have rejected You. Have mercy on them all, most merciful Jesus, and draw them to Your Sacred Heart.

You are King, O Lord, not only of the faithful who have never forsaken You, but also of the prodigal children who have abandoned You; grant that they may quickly return to their Father's house lest they die of wretchedness and hunger.

You are King of those who are deceived by erroneous opinions, or whom discord keeps aloof; call them back to the harbor of truth and unity of faith, so that soon there may be but one flock and one Shepherd.

You are King of all those who are still involved in the darkness of idolatry or of Islamism; refuse not to draw them all into the light and kingdom of God. Turn Your eyes of mercy toward the children of that race, once Your chosen people. Of old they called down upon themselves the Blood of the Savior; may it now descend upon them a laver of redemption and of life.

Grant, O Lord, to Your Church assurance of freedom and immunity from harm; give peace and order to all nations, and make the earth resound from pole to pole with one cry: Praise to the Divine Heart that wrought our salvation; to It be glory and Honor forever. Amen.

-- Pius XI



23 October 2015

In the Home Stretch at La Sagrada Familia

Reflecting again on a happy trip of a year ago, I read today that at long last construction has begun on the towers of Mary and of Jesus at Gaudi's masterpiece, La Sagrada Familia in Barcelona.

I first visited this magnificent church in 1998; when I visited again last year the amount of progress was amazing.  This can be credited to computer modeling and modern construction techniques.  

I tell you, this place wows you.  If you have the means, it is a bucket list must-see.  

The photo above is a model of the project, with the Mary tower above the sanctuary and the Jesus tower smack dab in the middle of the transept, at an awesome height of 566 ft-- almost but not quite as high as the Gateway Arch.  It would be the tallest church steeple in Europe.

The photo below is a pic of the modernista columns and roof , taken in 2014.  It doesn't do it justice, believe me.


21 October 2015

Just One Year Ago




Before my world and its burdens changed, I was blessed to stand with my saintly wife and two of my daughters before these magnificent tapestries.

Nearly exactly one year ago.

Maranatha!





IMPORTANT: Synod Teaches Definitively on Marriage and the Eucharist

In the waning days of the current Synod, it is good to read at last some clear language on Marriage and the Eucharist.  Praise be to God for clear teaching so relevant to our times.  

I am not publishing the English translation to all of the documents, which would indeed be lengthy, but only those most relevant to the issues the current Synod has been covering for the last year:
 ___________________



ON THE SACRAMENT OF MATRIMONY.

    CANON I.-If any one saith, that matrimony is not truly and properly one of the seven sacraments of the evangelic law, (a sacrament) instituted by Christ the Lord; but that it has been invented by men in the Church; and that it does not confer grace; let him be anathema.

    CANON II.-If any one saith, that it is lawful for Christians to have several wives at the same time, and that this is not prohibited by any divine law; let him be anathema.

    CANON V.-If any one saith, that on account of heresy, or irksome cohabitation, or the affected absence of one of the parties, the bond of matrimony may be dissolved; let him be anathema.

    CANON VII.-If any one saith, that the Church has erred, in that she hath taught, and doth teach, in accordance with the evangelical and apostolical doctrine, that the bond of matrimony cannot be dissolved on account of the adultery of one of the married parties; and that both, or even the innocent one who gave not occasion to the adultery, cannot contract another marriage, during the life-time of the other; and, that he is guilty of adultery, who, having put away the adulteress, shall take another wife, as also she, who, having put away the adulterer, shall take another husband; let him be anathema.

ON THE MOST HOLY SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST

    CANON I.-If any one denieth, that, in the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist, are contained truly, really, and substantially, the body and blood together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and consequently the whole Christ; but saith that He is only therein as in a sign, or in figure, or virtue; let him be anathema.

    CANON II.-If any one saith, that, in the sacred and holy sacrament of the Eucharist, the substance of the bread and wine remains conjointly with the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, and denieth that wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the Body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the Blood-the species Only of the bread and wine remaining-which conversion indeed the Catholic Church most aptly calls Transubstantiation; let him be anathema.

    CANON III.-If any one denieth, that, in the venerable sacrament of the Eucharist, the whole Christ is contained under each species, and under every part of each species, when separated; let him be anathema.   

    CANON V.-If any one saith, either that the principal fruit of the most holy Eucharist is the remission of sins, or, that other effects do not result therefrom; let him be anathema.

    CANON VI.-If any one saith, that, in the holy sacrament of the Eucharist, Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, is not to be adored with the worship, even external of latria; and is, consequently, neither to be venerated with a special festive solemnity, nor to be solemnly borne about in processions, according to the laudable and universal rite and custom of holy church; or, is not to be proposed publicly to the people to be adored, and that the adorers thereof are idolators; let him be anathema.
 
    CANON VIII.-lf any one saith, that Christ, given in the Eucharist, is eaten spiritually only, and not also sacramentally and really; let him be anathema.

    CANON XI.-lf any one saith, that faith alone is a sufficient preparation for receiving the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist; let him be anathema. And for fear lest so great a sacrament may be received unworthily, and so unto death and condemnation, this holy Synod ordains and declares, that sacramental confession, when a confessor may be had, is of necessity to be made beforehand, by those whose conscience is burthened with mortal sin, how contrite even soever they may think themselves. But if any one shall presume to teach, preach, or obstinately to assert, or even in public disputation to defend the contrary, he shall be thereupon excommunicated. 

--from the Council, or Synod as it sometimes refers to itself, of Trent 

20 October 2015

In Conclusion, on Marriage

Today we reach the conclusion of the Catechism of the Council of Trent, or the Roman Catechism as it is otherwise known, on the subject of Holy Matrimony.  After this I will begin posting the relevant anathemas decreed by the Council itself. The Words of Christ do not expire.  The truth cannot and never will change.



The Use Of Marriage

Finally, the use of marriage is a subject which pastors should so treat as to avoid any expression that may be unfit to meet the ears of the faithful, that may be calculated to offend the piety of some, or excite the laughter of. others. The words of the Lord are chaste words; and the teacher of a Christian people should make use of the same kind of language, one that is characterised by singular gravity and purity of soul. Two lessons of instruction to the faithful are, then, to be specially insisted upon.

The first is that marriage is not to be used for purposes of lust or sensuality, but that its use is to be restrained within those limits which, as we have already shown, have been fixed by the Lord. It should be remembered that the Apostle admonishes: They that have wives, let them be as though they had them not, and that St. Jerome says: The love which a wise man cherishes towards his wife is the result of judgment, not the impulse of passion; he governs the impetuosity of desire, and is not hurried into indulgence. There is nothing more shameful than that a husband should love his wife as an adulteress.

But as every blessing is to be obtained from God by holy prayer, the faithful are also to be taught sometimes to abstain from the marriage debt, in order to devote themselves to prayer. Let the faithful understand that (this religious continence), according to the proper and holy injunction of our predecessors, is particularly to be observed for at least three days before Communion, and oftener during the solemn fast of Lent.

Thus will they find the blessings of marriage to be daily increased by an abundance of divine grace; and living in the pursuit of piety, they will not only spend this life in peace and tranquillity, but will also repose in the true and firm hope, which confoundeth not, of arriving, through the divine goodness, at the possession of that life which is eternal.

Continuing the Roman Catechism on Marriage



The Law of the Church on Marriage

The Rite To Be Observed

Having explained these matters, pastors should next teach what rites are to be observed in contracting marriage. There is no need, however, that we dwell on these questions here. The Council of Trent has laid down fully and accurately what must be chiefly observed; and this decree will not be unknown to pastors. It will suffice, then, to admonish them­ to study to make themselves acquainted, from the doctrine of the Council, with what regards this subject, and to explain it carefully to the faithful.

But above all, lest young persons, whose period of life is marked by extreme indiscretion, should be deceived by a merely nominal marriage and foolishly rush into sinful love­ unions, the pastor cannot too frequently remind them that there can be no true and valid marriage unless it be contracted in the presence of the parish priest, or of some other priest commissioned by him, or by the Ordinary, and that of a certain number of witnesses.

The Impediments Of Marriage

The impediments of marriage are also to be explained, a subject so minutely and accurately treated by many grave and learned writers on the virtues and vices as to render it an easy task to draw upon their labours, particularly as the pastor has occasion to have such works continually in his hands. The instructions, therefore, which such books contain, and also the decrees of the Council with regard to the impediments arising from spiritual relationship, from public honesty, and from fornication, the pastor should peruse with attention and expound with care.

The Recipient of Matrimony

Dispositions With Which The Sacrament Is To Be Approached

From the above may be learned the dispositions with which the faithful should contract matrimony. They should consider that they are about to enter upon a work that is not human but divine. The example of the Fathers of the Old Law, who esteemed marriage as a most holy and religious rite, although it had not then been raised to the dignity of a Sacrament, shows the singular purity of soul and piety (with which Christians should approach marriage).

Consent Of Parents

Among other things, children should be exhorted earnestly that they owe as a tribute of respect to their parents, or to those under whose guardianship and authority they are placed, not to contract marriage without their knowledge, still less in defiance of their express wishes. It should be observed that in the Old Law children were always given in marriage by their fathers; and that the will of the parent is always to have very great influence on the choice of the child, is clear from these words of the Apostle He that giveth his virgin in marriage doth well; and he that giveth her not, doth better.